Religious image of Ka’ba – its legacies and denominations in pagan Temple cultures

By: Dr. P. R. Palodhi


As regard origin of temple cultures, the Prophetic custom of Islamic holds that: the Sacred Stone fell from Heaven to point out humanity’s first Prophet Adam the place to construct an altar, which grew to become the primary Temple on earth. The sacred Stone is simply a marker and never for idolatry of stone worship. And since Adam’s time the temple tradition grew to become customary to the Prophetic religions. Adam’s altar and the stone have been mentioned to have been misplaced throughout Noah’s Flood and forgotten. In response to a chronicler, the Stone was recognized by its distinctive means to drift in water. Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) was mentioned to have later discovered the Black Stone on the unique website of Adam’s altar when the Angel Jibrail revealed it to him. Prophet Ibrahim ordered his son Ishmael to construct a brand new temple, the Ka’ba, during which to embed the Stone [1]. The Semitic cultures of the Center East had a convention of utilizing uncommon stones to mark locations of worship, a phenomenon which is mirrored within the Hebrew Bible in addition to the Qur’an [2]. As such, students have in contrast its purposeful similarities to the Jewish temple in Jerusalem. Heribert Busse [3] pointed about most important similarities between the Jewish temple and the Ka’ba. First, the temple and the Ka’ba have a typical basis in Semitic faith. Second, after the destruction of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem, two successors arose: the Christian Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the Muslim Haram al-Sharif (which occupies the location beforehand occupied by the temple). Busse additionally mentions (p. 237): “Jewish traditions in regards to the Temple have been transferred to the Haram al-Sharif – a part of them got here immediately from the Temple, a part of them by way of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.” Islamic custom initially related the primordial hillock with Jerusalem [4]. Nevertheless, the location of the primordial hillock was transferred to Mecca when the Jewish tribes of Medina rejected Prophet Muhammad, and the qibla (course of prayer) was modified from Jerusalem to Mecca. Thus from a typical Semitic origin of temple and the Ka’ba the Nice Mosque stands at this time because the holy middle of Islam. Even in pre-Islamic occasions the Ka’ba was a sacred website and was thought of to be ‘the sacred Home of Allah.’ However Ka’ba has been full of pagan idols many occasions by the rule of pagan Arabs. With the rise of Islam, once more sanctity of Ka’ba was restored when Prophet Muhammad cleansed it of the pagan idols (excluding the pictures of Jesus and Mary). Since that point the Ka’ba has performed a central position within the non secular lifetime of Muslims around the globe.


Ever for the reason that Prophet Muhammad acquired God’s command, “From by any means place thou issuest, flip thy face in the direction of the Holy Mosque” (Q, 2:144), Muslims believed that the small shrine situated close to the middle of the Nice mosque in Mecca is probably the most sacred place on earth. Inbuilt to the japanese wall of the Ka’ba there may be the Black Stone of Mecca (al-Hazar al- Aswad). The Ka’ba marked the situation the place the sacred world intersected with the profane, and the embedded Black Stone was an extra image of this as an object that linked heaven and earth [5]. The creation started by stretching out the earth round this middle. “The primary land to seem upon the face of the water was Mecca. Then God unfolded the earth out from below it” [6]. In ultimate Revelation, the ‘Image of Ka’ba’ is equally vital because the ‘Title of God’. Qur’an refers to Mecca because the “Mom of Cities” (Q, 42:7) and Muslims view Mecca and its Ka’ba as the middle of the world, with all issues radiating from them [7]. Now dealing with the Black Stone pilgrims make seven   rounds ranging from proper, anti-clock smart – during which solar rotates, planets rotate, and all of them in flip revolve across the middle of our galaxy, and the disk like entire Galaxy with its spiral arms rotates on this anti-clock course. Untold tens of millions from all continents have prostrated themselves 5 occasions a day towards this magnetic middle. Throughout Hajj, earlier than coming into the Mosque pilgrims should throw stones to Devil – as a result of with out consciousness of the evil, one shouldn’t strategy the Holiness of the God. Correct realization of the Gentle comes not earlier than figuring out the darkness. In esoteric sense the Ka’ba is recognized with the center of the seeker. Whereas development of the Mosque, Prophet Muhammad kissed the Stone and stood upon it. The sacred Stone just isn’t the idol, it is just a marker and Ka’ba is the focus for course of the prayer. ‘Abis bin Rabia narrated that: Umar got here close to the Black Stone and kissed it and mentioned, “Little doubt, I do know that you’re a stone and might neither profit anybody nor hurt anybody. Had I not seen God’s Apostle kissing you, I might not have kissed you.” (al-Bukhari, Muhammad ibn Ismail. Sahih al-Bukhari. Quantity 2, Guide 26, Quantity 667).

Custom maintains that the stone was initially pure and dazzling white, however has turned black due to the sins of the folks. The Stone has suffered desecrations and harm; the Ka’ba has been destroyed and subsequently rebuilt a number of occasions over the centuries. It’s mentioned to have been struck and smashed to items by a stone fired from a catapult through the Umayyad siege of Mecca in 756. The fragments have been rejoined by ‘Abd Allah ibn Zubayr utilizing a silver ligament [8]. In January 930 it was stolen by the Qarmatians, who carried the Black Stone away to their base in Hajar (fashionable Bahrain). After 21 years the Stone was recovered in 951 AD. The Black Stone consists of plenty of fragments held collectively by a silver body, which is mounted by silver nails to the Stone [9]. A number of the smaller fragments have been cemented collectively to kind the seven or eight fragments seen at this time. The Stone’s uncovered face measures about 20 centimetres (7.9 in) by 16 centimetres (6.three in). Its unique measurement is unclear; its recorded dimensions have modified significantly over time, because the Stone has been transformed. Within the 10 th century, an observer described it as being one cubit (barely over 2 ft (Zero.61 m) lengthy). By the early 17 th century, it was recorded as measuring 1.5 yards (1.four m) by 1.33 yards (1.22 m). In response to Ali Bey within the 18 th century, it was 42 inches (110 cm) excessive; Muhammad Ali reported it as being 2.5 ft (Zero.76 m) lengthy by 1.5 ft (Zero.46 m) large [10].


Historical past reveals that since distant antiquity legacies of Ka’ba and the sacred non secular Stone of Prophet Adam have prevailed in world religions. Based mostly upon the concept of Ka’ba varied pagan denominations might be seen in religions around the globe.

Historic Egyptian Faith: From hieroglyphic engravings of 6 th dynasty (24 th century BC) inside pyramids of Males-ne-Re and Pepi II (Nefer-ka-Re) – the Egyptologists have inferred Ka as ‘alter ego’ or ‘guardian spirit’. Ka with Ba and Akh, written by a hieroglyph of ‘uplifted arms’ or ‘sheltering arms’, it appears initially to have designated the protective the divine spirit of an individual, and later the personified sum of individuality. We have no idea what it initially meant to the extra historical Egyptians earlier than pharaohs, however pagan pharaohs of Egypt believed that KA survive the dying of physique and will reside in an image or statue of an individual. The precise significance of Ka stays a matter of controversy, mainly for lack of an Egyptian definition. KHAYBET in Egyptian mythology is a manifestation of KA. 

Historic Mesopotamian Faith: Origin of Ka remained unknown. In later inscriptions Ka is personified as mistress of Magic, one of many guardians of stability between Good and Evil. Of their mythology Ka was depicted as daughter of Mesopotamian goddess Thammut.

Pre-Vedic Indus Valley Faith: From theological investigations (on the names of the locations and prevailing legends and philology) and genetic analysis it’s now turning into clear that Prophet Abraham’s east certain descendants have lived across the Indus area. On this connection Siva of   Hinduism calls for consideration due to his legendary reference to non secular image of Sacred Stone. This was unacceptable to early Vedics who used to ridicule pre-Vedic Saivites as worshippers of Sisna (penis) which is a purposive phrase bereft of any spiritualism. However when Vedic faith failed to deal with Siva’s reputation – they turned to soak up Siva’s picture by giving rise to varied pagan myths of Phallic and Linga-yoni worship. Within the Pre Vedic Indus Valley Inscriptions and within the Vaisali Inscriptions Ka and Linga have been co-related; through the interval of Indus civilization Ka and Linga have been totally different within the subject of worship, however within the language they have been collectively producing one phonetic worth. G.R. Hunter analyzed the Indus Inscriptions ‘Ka’ as a bi-syllabic phrase ak-ka (maybe pronounced as single consonant) and he posited that the entire ideographic presentation means a servant to God or Hero.

Unusual legend about ‘KA’ in Kashmir: In Bijbihara, south of Srinagar, a spot on the riverbank continues to be known as ‘Moses’ bath-place’, the place there’s a magic stone known as Ka- Ka- Bal or Sang-i–Musa (stone of Moses). In response to legend, the stone, about 70 kilograms in weight, is meant to rise by itself and remained suspended at about one meter off the bottom if eleven folks contact it with one finger whereas appropriately chanting the magic spell ‘Ka-Ka, Ka-Ka’. Researcher Andrew Thomas reported that levitation in India continues to be carried out to this present day utilizing chanting. Within the village of Shivapur, close to Poona, is slightly mosque devoted to the Sufi holy man Qamar Ali Dervish. Exterior within the courtyard of the mosque is a stone weighing 138 kilos, and through each day prayer, eleven devotees encompass the stone, repeating the holy man’s identify. Once they learn a sure pitch, the 11 males are capable of raise the stone by utilizing one finger every. As quickly because the chanting stops, the devotees bounce again, for the stone resumes its weight and falls to the bottom with a heavy thud. 

Vedic and Avestan religions: In Vedic reckoning Ka seems as unknown divinity. In Rig-Vedawe come throughout Ka in e book 10:121. “Kasmai devaya havisa vidhema“(R.V; 10:121:1). The which means of the hymn is: “whom do I invoke giving up Hiranyagarbha?” (Additionally in RV 1:164:18). Max Muller and Dowson determine Ka with Prajapati, Brahmana, Dokhsa, and Kasyapa within the sense of Lord of all creatures. Within the Amarakosa (three.three.5) Ka means Marut, Brahma and Surya. Within the Purnacandra Bhasakosa Ka stands for 24 gods – Brahma, Surya, Vishnu, Siva and so on. Within the Saiva Purana (of the Vedic heritage) the Jyoti and the Solar means Ka.

In distinction to polytheistic Veda, its up to date Prophetic Gatha of Zoroaster conveys a distinct sense; right here KA signifies “WHAT” however in a distinct non secular sense. In Gatha VII, Yasna 34-5: The Prophet Zoroaster prays to the Supreme God Ahura Mazda, “What (KA) is your energy, What (KA) is your need? I obey Your directions. I shall at all times stay utterly righteous and pure thoughts to guard these self-restrained individuals who observe Your path in accordance with Your want and in accordance with Your directions. First we are going to obey You and do Your work and thereby purchase full power after which we are going to describe Your power and Your message to the Devas and to the loathsome Masakyas who go alongside the evil path”.

Chinese language Faith: KO-WU (investigation of issues), Neo-Confucian apply which careworn examine of issues, individuals and occasions on the earth in an effort to arrive at an understanding of the interior “precept” (Li) of actuality.  It’s linked with the gradual consciousness of Li. KO TAO is the Chinese language customized of kneeling and touching the bottom with brow as obeisance.

Japanese Faith: KAMI – the thing of worship in Shinto and different indigenous religions of Japan, usually translated as God, Lord, or Deity, but in addition together with different forces of nature which grow to be object of reverence are worshipped of their manifestations in a symbolic objects (viz., mirror). Kamidana is Japanese God-shelf. The Grand Shrine of ISE represents a common Kami. Stones and rocks in Japan have been initially seen as symbols of mononoke (supernatural forces which permeate matter and area). Later, an summary, undifferentiated mononoke was changed by extra particular animistic deities who resided within the stones and rocks. These rock abodes are known as iwakura. Everywhere in the precinct of the shrine at Ise are rocks and stones that are honored because the abodes of deities, such because the subsidiary shrine on the Naiku known as Takimatsuri-no-kami. Elsewhere in Japan are many stones and stone preparations representing the female and male precept, such because the stone circle at Oyu in Akita Prefecture in north-eastern Japan. The emotional attachment to pure stones, initially religion-inspired, has persevered in Japan and is manifest at this time within the creation of richly symbolic and non secular stone gardens. 

Mexico and Mayan faith: KAAN in Mexican faith stands for heaven and KABIL is the Mayan deity whose identify signifies He-of- the-lucky-hand.

Finno-Ugric faith: KABA (KAVA) is the Finno-Ugric spirit of destiny or windfall.

Hopi Indians: KIVA is the sacred round ceremonial room of the Hopi Indians dedicated to secret rites; it’s constructed beneath Pueblo dwelling. 

Slavic faith: KAMEN is the Slavonic phrase for stone, a solar emblem or picture which they believed to yield nice KA. 


As in comparison with non secular image of sacred Stone in Prophetic faith, there may be parallel improvement of ‘stone cultures’ in total pagan world. The transferring and arranging of huge stones right into a constructing or another configuration in a sacred context additionally characterizes many early cultures across the globe, from the Inca in South America, to the Egyptians and Mycenaeans. As early as 5000 BC we might hint the massive stones (megaliths – Greek mega, nice, and lithos, stone), both unwrought or roughly labored have been erected throughout prehistoric Europe to face in traces or in circles (similar to at Stonehenge in England), or in any other case organized at the side of earthworks normally recognized as burial mounds (similar to at Newgrange in Eire). Little is understood in regards to the objective or which means of those megalithic constructions, however it’s universally agreed that they mark or embellish a sacred place within the panorama. Examples of megalithism can even present in nations around the globe, such because the ‘Beforo monument’ close to Bouar within the Central African Republic, the Tatetsuki stone circles standing the summit of a tumulus at Okayama in Japan, and the moai statues on ceremonial platforms on Easter Island. In response to Pausanias (VII, 24. four), in olden occasions all of the Greeks worshipped unwrought stones as a substitute of photos and describes thirty sq. stones close to a spring sacred to Hermes at Pharae in Greece.

In addition to sacred stone, we discover that Temples additionally play the important position in Pagan religions. Since starting of our civilization, Temple complexes offered a unifying drive for each Semitic custom of God, and polytheistic Pagan cultures that centralized round respective temples of their gods and goddesses. In response to Revelation, Paganism is inherited from the pre-human Jinn race who additionally acquired steerage from God: “O ye meeting of Jinns and males! got here there  not unto you messengers from amongst you, setting forth unto you My Indicators and warnings you of the assembly of this present day of yours?” (Q, 6:130). However then Revelation (Surah Al-Jinn) informs that: many of the pre-human Jinns denied God’s command and devised a Pagan faith of false gods. As regard the pagan denominations of ‘stone and idol worships’, God reveals in Bible (Leviticus 26:1): Don’t make idols or arrange a picture or a sacred stone for yourselves, and don’t place a carved stone in your land to bow down earlier than it. I’m the Lord your GOD.

Deuteronomy 12:three: Break down their altars, smash their sacred stones and burn their Asherah poles within the hearth; lower down the idols of their gods and wipe out their names from these locations.

Jinns’ paganism was inherited by the later human generations. Since distant historical to very fashionable, we discover the Temple tradition of false gods and goddesses first by making their idols after which worshipping them as equal to God. The Pagan denial of God is effectuated primarily by creating ‘mass ignorance about God’ by way of falsehoods of myths and cults, and secondarily by giving rise to ‘inequity’ in society. Therefore pagan guidelines at all times are inclined to function by way of sects; historical society of Ur was divided into three courses: a. Amilu (priestly Sanga, like later Brahmins); b. Mishkinu (like Vaisyas of Hindus); and c. Ardus (like Sudras of Hindus).

It was the Sumerians who constructed a few of the earliest temples. The primary temple, in accordance with Sumerian custom, was in Eridu on the sting of the Persian Gulf. In response to Sumerian legends, it was there that civilization started and there that the primary temple was constructed to Enki (later they equated with EA), the god of underground recent water. The crafty Sumerian god Enki (bël nëmeqi’ Lord of crafty/ability’) remained essential because the god of knowledge within the Sumerian pantheon for a lot of centuries, and was “consulted” at any time when the Sumerians undertook the development or reparation of a temple, maybe additionally due to his reference to the earliest temple. The nucleus of Sumerian civilization was the temple enclosures. Locations of worship, temple storehouses, and enterprise places of work have been surrounded and guarded by the huge wall. These complexes offered each non secular and social construction for the encompassing communities. Right here dominated rich priesthood; assisted by the scribes they used to deal with the temple property. The temple served additionally as a financial institution the place cash was loaned by the clergymen within the identify of their god, and likewise the curiosity was extracted in god’s identify. Egyptians inherited from ancestral supply sure perception in ‘Hereafter’. Regularly the monarchy and the advancing civilization went with it to evolve the frilly materials tools for the useless – a monumental tomb Pyramid with its mortuary furnishings. A well-known saying of Aesculapius is that “All Egypt is a temple.” Certainly, in all places we glance in Egypt, we’re confronted with instructing gadgets boldly displayed on the skin in addition to the within of the numerous sacred edifices. Probably the most beloved god of Egypt, in addition to almost all of the native gods of Western Asia, particularly Syria, Palestine, Assyria, and Babylonia, have been believed to have lived, died, and risen once more.

Intriguing parallels in Temple cultures: Historical past then goes to disclose varied intriguing parallels between Temple cultures of Prophetic custom and polytheistic Pagans. The Sumerian temples, of their most developed part, confirmed structural similarities to later Israelite temples. At the least two of the temples excavated in Israel (Nahariya and Inform Beit Mirsim) bear the likeness of Sumerian flooring plans [1]. In each Sumerian and Hebrew traditions, holiness was related to the temple and the potential presence of deity there; purity was a prerequisite for entrance to that sacred space. Subsequently, purification rituals have been a obligatory preliminary step to approaching deity within the temple. In Prophetic custom we discover that ceremonial washing i.e. ablution (wudhu) is should earlier than prayer (salat); likewise   it additionally seems from one of many temple hymns that the hand-washing ceremony (šu-luh) was carried out within the Sumerian temple room because the abzu, or maybe even within the abzu itself [2]. 

Now as we come to Black Stone (al- Hazar-al-Aswad) of Ka’ba, it’s a image that hyperlinks heaven and earth. Equally among the many pagan Egyptians, the Babylonians, and the Hittites, tombs and temples have been integrally joined; the temple was considered because the “hyperlink between this world and the subsequent” (Lundquist, “What Is a Temple?” p. 215)[3].

Within the Qur’an the Home or the sacred precinct is related to a mountain (Q, 52:1). Three elements of the Ka’ba are related to mountain symbolism. First, Islamic custom identifies the place the place Prophet Abraham constructed the Ka’ba. Second, custom has that Abraham constructing the Ka’ba from rockstaken from 5 mountains: “Mount Sinai, the Mount of Olives, Mount Hira, Mount Libanon and Mount Judi.”[4]. Third, custom locations the Ka’ba reverse the polar star, which is the best level within the heavens. Al-Kisa’i writes: “Custom says: the polestar proves that the Ka’ba is the best located territory; for it lies over towards the centre of heaven.”[5].

These elements of God’s faith have been transformed in pagan cultures; thus cosmic mountain and astrology primarily based on stars grew to become the very foundations of all pagan religions. Within the historical Close to East, mountains have been related to pagan worships, as was the case with the pyramids of Egypt and the ziggurats of Mesopotamia. The Mesopotamian ziggurat might be the very best instance of a construction with an architectonic orientation portraying the concept of successive ascension to heaven. It was constructed with various numbers of ranges – normally three, 5, or seven. The higher stage was reached by a monumental staircase. The worshipers ascended the staircase, and deity descended from heaven to satisfy them [6]. The place of the assembly between the 2 realms was a spot of nice sacredness. Astrological twist primarily based upon partial data of astronomy (a present from Jinn gods) has continued to mesmerize the successive pagan generations. Close to Japanese archives knowledgeable that the duku was their place of divine judgment. The primary (and best-known) perform is demonstrated in a bilingual textual content referred to as VR50+51: Incantation: Shamash, If you come out of the good mountain, the mountain of the springs (of water); If you come out of the duku the place fates are decided; If you come out of the (place) the place heaven and earth are linked, from the muse of heaven, to (this) place; The nice gods will current themselves earlier than you for judgment;The Anunnaki will current themselves to you for choices.

Profanity in pagan Temple tradition: The archives of historical civilizations inform varied profane practices of the pagan Temple cultures. The gods have been fed with considerable sacrifices, generally human and in addition animals. Cohabitation with temple prostitutes was sacred ritual in Mesopotamia and Syria within the 1st millennium BC. Mass frenzy and emasculation was prerequisite for turning into the priest of the goddess (in Phrygian plateau). A cult of about 1200 BC from Beth-Shan reveals a nude goddess holding two doves in her arms as she sits with legs aside to point out her intercourse; beneath her are two male deities, with a canine on the ft of one in all them; in the direction of them from beneath creeps a serpent and from one facet advances a lion: “This can be thought of as a terse epitome of the mythological symbolism of Canaanite faith on the finish of the pre-Israelite age in Palestine” [7]. The goddess of fertility performed a a lot higher position among the many Canaanites as in comparison with different historical folks. The favorite animals for Canaanite goddess have been ‘lions’ for its ferocity, and the ‘serpent’ and ‘dove’ for his or her fecundity. In iconography these goddesses are represented as bare with savagery picture. Bare goddess is proven astride with a galloping horse and brandishing weapons in her proper hand. In a fraction of Baal epic (printed in 1938), Anath seems blood thirsty, she massacres mankind, younger and previous, from sea-coast to the rising solar, inflicting heads and palms to fly in all instructions. There she ties heads to her again, palms to her girdles, and wades to her knees, as much as her throat – in human gore. That is just like cult of ‘goddess Kali in Hindu Temple’ the place remotely historical ‘cult of mom goddess’ has been reanimated by inventing a thesis of Shakti cult.

References: (A. The sacred stone in ka’ba – a non secular image)

1. Shaykh Tabarsi, Tafsir, vol. 1, pp. 460, 468. Quoted in translation by Francis E. Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 5. SUNY Press, 1994. ISBN Zero-7914-1876-

2. Cyril Glasse, New Encyclopedia of Islam, Rowman Altamira, 2001. ISBN Zero-7591-0190-6

three. Heribert Busse, “Jerusalem and Mecca, the Temple and the Kaaba: An Account of Their Interrelation in IslamicTimes,” in The Holy Land in Historical past and Thought, ed. Moshe Sharon (Leiden: Brill, 1988), 236–46)

four. A. J. Wensinck, The Concepts of the Western Semites in regards to the Navel of the Earth (Amsterdam: Muller, 1916

5. Armstrong, Karen (1996). Jerusalem: One Metropolis, Three Faiths. A.A. Knopf. p.221. ISBN 9780679435969.

6. Tha’labi, Qisas, three–four; translation by Brian Hauglid; see additionally A. J. Wensinck, “The Semitic New 12 months and the Origin of Eschatology,” Acta Orientalia 1 (1922): 175.

7.”Thus the primary village to be constructed was Mecca and the primary home was the Wonderful Kaaba.” Thackston, trans., Tales of the Prophets of al-Kisa’i, 62

Eight. Dairesi, Hırka-i Saadet; Aydın, Hilmi, (2004), The sacred trusts: Pavilion of the Sacred Relics, Topkapı Palace Museum, Istanbul. Tughra Books. ISBN 9781932099720

9. Alex Bevan, John De Laeter, Meteorites: A Journey By means of Area and Time, pp. 14-15. UNSW Press, 2002. ISBN Zero-86840-490-X)

10. Burke, John G. (1991). Cosmic Particles: Meteorites in Historical past. College of California Press. pp. 221–223. ISBN 9780520073968)

References: (B. Legacies of ka’ba prevailed in world religions)

1. Dic. Of Mythology folklore and symbols by Gertrude Jobes, 1962. Half 1&2; The Scarecrow Press Inc, NY

2.  Encyclopedia of world religions, by G.T. Bettany, Bracken Books, London

three.  Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of world religions, 1999, ISBN: Zero-87779-044-2

four. Dic. Of Philosophy and Faith – japanese and western thought, by W.L. Resse, Humanities   Press, N.Jersy, 1980

References: (C. How temple cultures flourish in pagan traditions?)

1. J. Kaplan, “Mesopotamian Parts within the Center Bronze II Tradition of Palestine,” Journal of Close to Japanese Research 30/four (1971): 293–307.

2. The road in query is line 40 of hymn no. three, in Sjöberg and Bergmann, Sumerian Temple Hymns, 19: temen šu-luh-sikil-zu abzu-a lá-a, “Basis, your pure laving ceremony spreads over the Abzu.”

three. Lundquist, John M.  “The Frequent Temple Ideology of the Historic Close to East,” in The Temple in Antiquity: Historic Information and Trendy Views, ed. Truman G. Madsen (Provo, Utah: BYU Spiritual Research Heart, 1984).

four. Tha’labi, Kitab Ara’is al-majalis fi qisas al-anbiya (Egypt: Mu af al-B b al- alab , 1340), 61–62; Tabari, Jami al- bayan, 1:546; Yaqut, Mu’jam al-buldan (Beirut, 1955–57), four:465.

5. Translation and unique Arabic script in Wensink, Navel of the Earth, p. 15.

Sacred Stone, al-Hazar al- Aswad, temple tradition, Adam’s altar, Ka’ba, Semitic faith, Haram al-Sharif, qibla, Holy Sepulchre, Hajj, Ka, Ba, megaliths, Stonehenge, Khaybet, Linga, Sang-i–Musa, Ko-Wu, Ko Tao, Kami, Kaan, Kiva, Kamen,

6. See: Lundquist, “The Frequent Temple Ideology,” 57–58.

7. Albright. W.F, ‘From the Stone age to Christianity‘, pp. 177-Eight, (The John Hopkins Press)